In 1815, Mount Tambora blew its top and released about 160 cubic kilometers (38 cubic miles) of magma and ash – this is the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. While Novarupta produced such a large eruption, thankfully there were no deaths. This list contains some of the largest known volcanic eruptions in history, which have also been some of the most devastating. Before the 1815 eruption, Mount Tambora was 14,000 feet (4.3 kilometers) tall and was reduced down to 9,000 feet (2.7 kilometers) after the eruption. 555 timer - large inaccuracies with precision components. The last major volcanic eruption at Yellowstone National Park happened about 640,000 years ago. Arc magmatism, calderas, and supervolcanoes. The Tandukbenua cone on the northwestern edge of the caldera has only sparse vegetation, suggesting a young age of several hundred years. If such an eruption happened, it could unfold in a series of explosive eruptions/vents and turn into one, or it could just erupt as one single massive vent. The exact year of the eruption is unknown, but the pattern of ash deposits suggests that it occurred during the northern summer because only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea. How can a hive mind secretly monetize its special ability to make lots of money? So, VEI 9 is pretty big. Why does a blocking 1/1 creature with double strike kill a 3/2 creature? Ignoring overloading on the vessel and operating in rough weather conditions were concluded as the main reasons leading to the disaster. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. Their conclusion is that the cooling had already started before Toba's eruption. Thanks for contributing an answer to Earth Science Stack Exchange! The scale is logarithmic from VEI-2 and up; an increase of 1 index indicates an eruption that is 10 times as powerful. [25][26] The genetic bottleneck is now recognized to be the Out-of-Africa founder effect, rather than an actual reduction in population. There are reports that indicate that the initial blast from Krakatoa reached an estimated 24 kilometers (15 miles) into the air. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations; it killed most humans living at that time and is believed to have created a population bottleneck in central east Africa and India, which affects the genetic make-up of the human worldwide population to the present. The residents and people who worked in what is now Katmai National Park and Preserve had felt unusual tremors for weeks and had evacuated in time. That last eruption was designated as an 8 on the Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI), which is the highest level. Some eruptions are massive, the largest according to was Wah Wah Springs about 30 million years ago, releasing somewhere around 5500 cubic kilometre - this is classified as a VEI 8. "[11], Qualitative scale for explosiveness of volcanic eruptions, List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century, List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century, List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century, "The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): An Estimate of Explosive Magnitude for Historical Volcanism", Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, "Global Volcanism Program - Hoodoo Mountain", "The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth", "Volcanic Aerosols: The significance of volcanic eruption strength and frequency for climate", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth, List of Large Holocene Eruptions (VEI > 4) from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program, Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 03:39. Mount Tambora’s eruption had devastating effects and it is estimated that more than 10,000 people died during the eruptions. a recent study suggests that the assimilation of water bearing crustal rocks into the magma at Toba increased its water content, and therefore, explosivity. The incident caused the death of 190 people and injuries to a number of others. Can a monster cast a higher level spell using a lower level spell slot? It is currently estimated that there are 1,500 potentially active volcanoes around the world. A VEI-9 volcanic eruption is kind of like a Category 6 hurricane, or a MMI magnitude XIII earthquake, or any other variation of the "Spinal Tap" joke about turning the volume up to 11. [1] Lake Toba Caldera is one of the twenty Geoparks in Indonesia,[2] which is recognised in July 2020 as one of the UNESCO Global Geopark. Earth Science Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for those interested in the geology, meteorology, oceanography, and environmental sciences.