The Shang Empire emerged about 1800 BCE and survived until about 1000 BCE. , The Shi were the gentry scholars in the time of ancient Zhou and Shang dynasties. , An official career in Han times was for the most part open only to members of the gentry class, which, although much larger than the old aristocracy had been, still remained a very small group within the wider society of ancient China. Nobles fought in the king's army. , Towns and cities could be found in China as far back as the Shang dynasty, if not before. , Linked to all the other changes in Chinese society from mid-Zhou times onwards, social classes became much more fluid.  Since Neolithic times in China, agriculture was a key element to the rise of China's civilization and every other civilization. Italian missionary Matteo Ricci, who came to China in the sixteenth century, wrote in comparing the Chinese and the Europeans that the Chinese were contented with the status quo and cherished harmony and peace. Success allowed the people of the Shang Dynasty to develop their culture; starting traditions like oracle bone writing and ancestor worship that would stay with China for many years to come. The Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BCE) is the first form of government in China which established large cities. Ancient China began in 5000 BC. , Kids learn about the Shang Dynasty of Ancient China including its history, culture, early writing, government, oracle bones, rise and fall, and interesting facts.
It was located in the Yellow River valley during the second millennium BCE.  The Shang dynasty was located on the Yellow river which caused unpredictable flooding. 11 12 13.      The Shang were skilled workers in bone, jade, ceramics, stone, wood, shells, and bronze, as proven by the discovery of shops found on the outskirts of excavated palaces.  The heartland of the Chinese culture area in ancient times, and long after, was the Yellow River valley. Jade workers made objects by sawing, filing, and sanding stone. They centralized government, built strong cities, and began the Chinese culture.  
 The renowned Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649 CE); the emperor represented the pinnacle of traditional Chinese society, and was above that of the scholar-official.
 2.    , What type of social structure existed in Ancient China? 
The Shang Dynasty was the first true civilization of China. Slaves- at the very bottom of Shang society were slaves, who had often been captured in wars. The Shang Dynasty | Boundless World History, FSI | SPICE - The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE, Sacramento Chinese Culture Foundation | Social and Domestic Life in Ancient China, Shang Dynasty Chinese History AP World History, Shang Dynasty -- China's First Recorded History [ushistory.org], World History/The First Chinese Dynasties - Wikibooks, open books for an open world, Social Hierarchy of Ancient China - HierarchyStructure.com, Daily Life in Ancient China (Article) - Ancient History Encyclopedia, What are the social classes of the Shang Dynasty in order, The Great Bronze Age of China | Asia for Educators | Columbia University, China Shang Dynasty (16th -11th century BC): Polotics, Economy, Culture and Arts, How did the different levels of society have more or less money in the Shang Dynasty? The scheme reflects Confucian ideals more closely than it does social realities at any time in Chinese history. It featured a stratified social system made up of aristocrats, soldiers, artisans and craftsmen, and peasants. When Cheng Tang overthrew the last king of the Xia Dynasty, he supposedly founded a new capital for his dynasty at a town called Shang, near modern-day Zhengzhou. The social class system of the Shang Dynasty begins with the ruling family. the king and his relatives were obviously at the top.They ruled over the whole land. Because the Three Dynasties’ civilization occupied the Yellow River valley, this geographic area is often called the birthplace or cradle of Chinese civilization.
Millet is the dynasty's primary staple food, but rice and wheat were also eaten. 
, Despite the turmoil and the impending uprising, Emperor Zhou (Shang's last emperor) led a luxurious life and tortured both his ministers and his people. , Oracle bones : Inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals, dating to the Shang Dynasty of ancient China. In the north, the Shang Dynasty formed along the Western bend of the Hwang He River near what would become the city of Chang'an or Xian'yang (called Xi'an in modern China). The commercialization of Chinese society in the Song and Ming periods further blurred the lines between these four hierarchic social distinctions. These military technologies were important, because the Shang were constantly at war. The emperors of the later Han dynasty (or "Eastern Han", as it was called) owed their throne to the support of this new class. 
Having a written lanuage helped to unify the Chinese people.  The system also did not figure in all other social groups present in premodern Chinese society. Gradually the natives would adopt Chinese culture, and in the process, transmit some of their own ways into the ever-changing Chinese civilization.
During the ancient Shang and Zhou dynasties, the shi were regarded as a knightly social order of low-level aristocratic lineage compared to dukes and marquises. , The food that farmers produced sustained the whole of society, while the land tax exacted on farmers' lots and landholders' property produced much of the state revenue for China's pre-modern ruling dynasties. From existing literary evidence, commoner rankings in China were employed for the first time during the Warring States period (403-221 BC).  During the ancient Shang (1600–1046 BC) and Early Zhou dynasties (1046–771 BC), the shi were regarded as a knightly social order of low-level aristocratic lineage compared to dukes and marquises. , Before the discovery of the Shang oracle bones and the interpretation of their inscriptions and bronze inscriptions, scholars had no firm proof that the Shang Dynasty existed. 
The dynasty claimed rule over much of northern China, but in reality its control and influence did not spread as far and wide.  The Shang dynasty emerged in the 17th century B.C.E.  The Burial Pit at the Tomb of Lady Fu Hao: This tomb is located in the ruins of the ancient Shang Dynasty capital, Yin.  , Cheng Tang is said to have established the dynasty’s first capital at a town called Shang (near modern-day Zhengzhou), but later kings moved the capital many more times, the last being a place called Yin (near modern-day Anyang). , The Shang also established a lunar calendar that was used to predict and record events, such as harvests, births, and deaths (of rulers and peasants alike).  The victor of this war was Liu Bang, who initiated four centuries of unification of China proper under the Han Dynasty (202 BCE-220 CE). Their largest contribution was their work with bronze, which the Chinese developed as early as 1500 BCE.  
Under the Shang and early Zhou, peasants formed a hereditary class of serfs, tied to the lands they farmed. , According to the traditional Confucian view, society is made up of four classes: government officials, farmers, artisans and merchants. | eNotes, Shang Dynasty: Social Structure & Family Life | Study.com, Social classes of ancient china under the shang dynasty religion presiz, Social classes of ancient china under the shang dynasty oracle idcyc, OiW7vlb5J9ZHURlllPnnuJBPYcPJOl8fUoP3pl4g0D9typgH.ppt, Chinese Shang Dynasty Social Classes by Jade Naber on Prezi, Xia Dynasty (21st - 16th Century BC), First Dynasty of China, Writing system of ancient china under the shang dynasty social classes tinsgon. With modernization came religion; oracle bones and ancestor worship became a large part of the Shang culture. By comparing and equating the inscriptions to modern Chinese characters, scholars have shown that the Shang had already developed all the principles of the modern writing system used today.  
The legend of the founding of China's first dynasty demonstrates the importance of bronze to the ancient Chinese: After King Yu of the Xia brought the primordial floods under control, in about 2200 B.C., he divided his land into nine provinces, and had nine ding (food cauldrons) cast to represent them. in the kingdom of the Shang dynasty along the banks of the Yellow River in northern China.  Important Facts, Evidence,  Although this practice started among the upper classes, it soon became common for all women in China. Regardless of the dates, one event more than any other signaled the advent of the Shang dynasty -- the Bronze Age.
1 It may have been the only one with written records, but that does not mean it was the only one in existence. The Shang produced outstanding jade pieces. , In 1928 the first scientific excavations of an ancient Chinese site began at Anyang, the last capital of the Shang dynasty. 
1)They developed and origionated what is now known today as Chinese manuscript 2)The Shang also passed down the political system known as a heirarchy. as the first true Chinese dynasty.  Oracle bone : Pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, used for divination in ancient China.   As with the aforementioned rulers, his existence may be mythical as well; the period of his reign occurred about one millennium before Chinese history was recorded.   , The social division between a ruling class, nobles, merchants (business owners), and the working class peasants deepened further with the invention of writing; people became divided between an upper class who could read and an illiterate peasant population. , According to legend, Chinese history began with a succession of three rulers - half-human, half-animal - followed by five emperors.