In 1991, a local San Diego firm, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems or IVHS Technologies, developed and introduced similar anti-collision technology for automobiles. Dave Schmidt, Sacramento The question remained, where was Cessna N7711G? Other PSA employees were Los Angeles area residents commuting to work or planning to attend an operations training seminar at the company’s Lindbergh Field headquarters. Randy Ryckman, Santa Monica. The 33-year-old mother and her eight-month-old son had only suffered minor lacerations to their hands and foreheads, though they were splattered with blood.88, Wounds of another kind affected dozens of police, firefighters, clergy, volunteers, and other first responders mentally shaken from the horrors they witnessed that day. They also noted the improper resolution of the conflict alert warning.103, Conspicuous by its absence from the report was disgruntled former PSA pilot Robert P. Chapman’s prior claim that the NTSB had totally ignored pilot fatigue as a factor that contributed to the crash. David L. Jolliffe, Los Angeles Robert Levine, San Diego, David Loeb, Santa Monica Your IP: John Dumas, Los Angeles He then tagged and placed the body parts in a plastic body bag along with the corpse. James W. Dormer, San Diego A well-recognized aircraft flying over San Diego at the time, Flight 182’s 10-year-old Boeing 727-214’s distinguishing features included a sleek 153-footlong narrow fuselage, swept-back wings, and two opposing external engines mounted on either side of the rear fuselage below a high “T”-shaped” vertical stabilizer. Charles Bren, Los Angeles Priests then said prayers and daubed holy oil on the remains before zippers were closed. It also recommends avoidance maneuvers.111, The crash of PSA Flight 182 also played a role in the development of anticollision technology for automobiles. Lynnette Cherry, Yakima Valley, WA Lawrence Wilson, Sacramento Incredulously, Miramar did not inform PSA 182 or Lindbergh Control about the conflict alert warning.42, At 09:01:47.9, just as PSA Flight 182 tipped its right wing down into banked turn roughly 2,600 feet above the intersection of 30th Street and El Cajon Boulevard, it overtook and struck Cessna N7711G with its nose wheel. According to later ground radar tracking printouts, Cessna N7711G was climbing at 120 mph about 1,300 feet below and ahead of Flight 182. Boundary and Dwight Streets, North Park, 1966. ©SDHC #92:18835-2062. Martha J. Coleman, San Diego Thomas Masker, Monterey David Bernard, Santa Monica Michael Sulit, Del Mar Daniel Bruce Urdahl, San Diego He was overheard saying to a stewardess, “It was a short night…I’m draggin’!” Thirty minutes later he and 143 people were dead, deaths that Price, Holley, and Chapman believed were preventable.105, Like most tragic aviation-related accidents, the crash of PSA Flight 182 led to immediate and long-range improvements to both local and national air traffic control procedures. He was learning the intricacies of the aircraft’s ILS or Instrument Landing System.17 Once certified, Boswell could land any ILS-equipped aircraft at night or under adverse weather conditions following an airport-emitted radio beam without seeing its runway until just before touching down.18, Although it was the nation’s busiest single runway airport, Lindbergh Field was the only airport in San Diego County set up for ILS certification training. Roger Smith, Waukesha, WI Instead of relying primarily on pilots’ use of the flawed “see and avoid” procedure, air traffic controllers would now use mandatory ground-based positive radar control to monitor and direct all approaching and departing aircraft.106, On May 15, 1980, the FAA established a Class B (Class Bravo) Airspace over Lindbergh Field. There were 3 other arrests for removing aircraft debris, or evidence, from the scene of an accident. But those versions were impractical due to their complexity.110 The current TCAS, introduced in 1987, is now installed in all commercial passenger and most commercial cargo airplanes. Volunteers removing aircraft engine debris in front of Nile and Dwight Streets. St. Augustine Roman Catholic High School one-half mile southwest of the crash site. Paula Blake, Playa del Rey Detective Jack Hausinger was an officer on Interstate 8 who saw the plane on fire and quickly radioed in that an airliner was about to crash. Frantic calls to 9-1-1 reported body parts strewn about the neighborhood and fires everywhere. Although he had only worked at Gibbs for slightly over a year, Kazy, who held a commercial pilot license with single and multi-engine instruments, had worked for several years previously as a certified flight instructor in Ohio. On September 25, 1978, as Flight 182 descended to 4,000 feet above Mission Bay, Miramar directed Captain McFeron to notify Lindbergh Field’s air traffic control that he was now entering its Terminal Service Area, which would provide him with radar vectoring, sequencing and traffic advisories prior to his landing on runway 27.15 Before transitioning control, Miramar advised Captain McFeron that a Cessna 172 Skylark, call sign N7711G, was heading in his direction.16, The Cessna N7711G was owned by the Gibbs Flite Center which operated a flight school out of Montgomery Field, a small general aviation airport located four miles northeast of Lindbergh. Located in the heart of Balboa Park In response, at 08:59:01 Lindbergh Tower instructed him to maintain VFR procedures no higher than 3,500 feet and to contact the Miramar Approach Control Center for further instructions.21 After doing so, at 08:59:57 Miramar told him that they had him on radar at an altitude of 1,500 feet, and reiterated Lindbergh’s directions to stay below 3,500 feet along a northeasterly 70 degree heading.22, Previously, at 08:59.30, Miramar had notified PSA 182 of “traffic [at] twelve o’clock, one mile, northbound.” Captain McFeron responded, “We’re looking.” Six seconds later, Miramar reported Cessna N7711G (Boswell and Kazy’s aircraft) as “additional traffic” on a northeast course at an altitude of 1,400 feet and climbing. Archives, San Diego Air and Space Museum, #06:01568. Walter Smith, Citrus Heights The airline would eventually pay over $5.5 million in settlements to claimants for property damage as well as wrongful death suits.87, Nine people were injured in the crash, most of whom survived by crawling out of the back windows of their burning homes. Rules (VFR) meant that weather conditions over San Diego were clear enough for PSA 182’s flight crew to utilize ground features and landmarks as navigational references. Due to mandated FAA limitations on working hours, some flight crew personnel were restricted from operating the aircraft on return flights to San Diego. Don Ashcroft, Sacramento Azmi David Taha, Vista, Allen Tetelman, Los Angeles Joseph Rigney, Downey, Donald St. Germain, San Diego Spring 2017, Volume 63, Number 3+4, To those unfamiliar with the San Diego community of North Park, Dwight Street (between Boundary and Nile Streets) is a quiet streetscape composed primarily of unassuming single-story homes. The San Diego Approach Control at Miramar would be responsible for all aircraft flying within this invisible 30-mile diameter zone between 12,500 and 2,500 feet altitude. Crash debris. Gary Bruce Walker lost his 3-year-old son and his mother. Of the hundreds of law enforcement officers providing perimeter security around a nine-block area, or helping in the search and rescue efforts, fifteen novice SDPD recruits assisted the San Diego County Coroner’s Office in combing through the wreckage for any evidence that could help identify the victims.72 Among these was Gary Jaus. Rankin paused to look at the still smoldering crash site behind him before exclaiming, “Holy [expletive]! Flight Officer Fox responded, “It’s bad.” When asked to elaborate, he emphatically stated, “We’re hit, man; we are hit!”48 Three seconds later, Captain McFeron calmly notified Lindbergh Field, “Tower, we’re going down, this is PSA.” Lindbergh Control responded with, “Okay, we’ll call the equipment for you.”49, PSA Flight 182’s true condition made it impossible that it would reach Lindberg Field. If Boswell or Kazy had had access to Lindbergh Field’s transmissions, they likely would have identified their location in relation to PSA Flight 182.38 Since Miramar had informed them that Flight 182 had them in sight, presumably neither felt compelled to actively locate the huge jet airliner bearing down on them. Supporting Chapman’s claim was an unsuccessful 50-day strike by PSA pilots seeking improved work schedules.104, San Jose State University biologists also supported the case for pilot fatigue. Barbara Boisselle, Los Angeles, Bryce Bonner, Los Angeles First installed in Greyhound buses in 1992, IVHS Technologies’ VORAD has become standard safety components in all modern domestic and foreign-made automobiles operating within the United States.112, Knowing that changes made after the September 25, 1978, mid-air collision over North Park might have contributed to saving thousands of lives since offers some solace to those still scarred emotionally by the loss of family and friends that day. Karen Borzewski, San Diego Created over several airports in the aftermath of a 1960 midair collision over New York City, a Class B airspace designation provided better separation and control in high traffic areas. Perry Flashman, Culver City Boswell also held a commercial pilot license with single and multi-engine land rating. Jonathon Falk, Los Angeles Controllers at both facilities were now able to view the same radar picture, which, through the transponders, identified each aircraft by its flight number, altitude, and heading.107, To prevent a reoccurrence of a mid-air collision over San Diego (or any other major US city), the FAA banned all “blind” ILS practice landing and non-ILScertified aircraft from all Class B airspace. That meant the little Cessna would have to compete with larger commercial aircraft for air space over the airport. Osby yelled at several individuals spraying garden hoses near burning magnesium aircraft parts.67 If sprayed, the latter could react violently to water, causing blinding explosions.68, As the ranking firefighter, Chief Osby met and ordered every additional arriving fire engine company coming down both Nile and Boundary Streets to proceed carefully due to the downed and ruptured power and gas lines. Jimmie Kelley, Savannah, Ga. The scattered remains also included those of seven North Park residents ranging in age from a 3-year-old at a daycare center to an 82-year-old grandmother in her home.76 Ambulances waiting to transport injured crash victims instead carried their bagged remains about a half mile southwest to the St. Augustine Roman Catholic High School gym building at 33rd and Nutmeg Streets.