The plant described under the same name by W. Herbert and C. L. Willdenow based on E.G. Postmortem examinations in some cases have revealed yellowish discoloration of the body fat. You can also view a clickable map. It is a perennial 10 cm[4] to 1 m in height. Effects of gastrointestinal irritation include: Nausea; Abdominal pain; Vomiting; Diarrhea, sometimes with blood. von Steudel is Solanum aethiopicum. It normally grows 1 to 3 feet tall. They were even able able to use the ground, dried, fruit to curdle milk to make cheese. know for sure where its native home is, experts suppose that originally it is from The plant is rich in solanine, a poisonous glycoalkaloid that causes gastrointestinal, neurological, and coronary problems including emesis, stomach pains, dizziness, headaches, and arrhythmia (Boyd et al. It also contains the steroidal glycoalkaloid solanidine used in hormone synthesis. Solanaceae (Nightshade/Potato Family). Book: Brush and Weeds of Texas Rangelands (B-6208), Toxic Plants of Texas (B-6105), Collection: Brush and Weeds, Toxics, Wild Flowers, Livestock Affected: Cattle, Goats, Horses, Sheep, Livestock Signs: Abdominal Pain, Colic, Collapse, Coma, Depression/ Weakness, Diarrhea, Excess Salivation, Irregular Breathing, Nitrate Poisoning, Unable To Rise, Vomiting/Regurgitation, Web Site Maintenance: Megan.Clayton@ag.tamu.edu, Equal Opportunity for Educational Programs Statement. The leaves and fruit are toxic at all stages of maturity; the highest concentration is in ripe fruits. White, Leslie A. tomato weed. silverleaf nightshade. [9] It is toxic to livestock and very hard to control, as root stocks less than 1 cm long can regenerate into plants. Also, in the treatment of snakebites, the medicine man would chew the root before sucking on the wound to extract the venom (Camazine and Bye 1980). The stems are covered with nettle-like prickles,[5] ranging from very few on some plants to very dense on others. The Zuni mixed the fruit with goat's milk in order to curdle it. : 01 - Pineywoods, 02 - Gulf Prairies and Marshes, 03 - Post Oak Savannah, 04 - Blackland Prairies, 05 - Cross Timbers and Prairies, 06 - South Texas Plains, 07 - Edwards Plateau, 08 - Rolling Plains, 09 - High Plains, 10 - Trans-Pecos. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. 1984). of the Dry Frio River in northern Uvalde County, southwestern Texas, on the southern Solanaceae, and the Nightshade/Tomato genus, Solanum. elaeagnifolium is just the normal S. crispum of Ruiz and Pavón Jiménez.[12]. John Wagman 04/20/2016, Cameron County TX, Resaca del la Palma State Park. The leaves have wavy margins and are lance shaped to narrowly oblong. enlightened gardeners where water is scarce plant the species in their rock gardens. Silverleaf nightshade is a perennial in the potato family. droughty conditions, and the 3/4-inch-wide flowers actually are quite pretty, some Other observers have noted that the fruit was used for toothaches. Well, they are beautiful, but the beauty is a beast! Ediciones Botas. 1941  Navajo Indian Medical Ethnobotany. Camazine, Scott and Robert A. Bye Weed Treatment Series. Glycoalkaloids from members of the nightshade family have been shown to be effective in variety of medical applications, including limiting growth of certain cancer cells and treating herpes complex viruses. The Wisconsin Archeologist 8:143-161. Solanum elaeagnifolium, the silverleaf nightshade[1] or silver-leaved nightshade, is a common plant, and sometimes weed of western North America and also found in South America. Meanwhile, S. crispum var. In fact, The crushed seeds from the berries helps to curdle milk. The plant is also endemic to the Middle East. tomatoes shown below: If you know your wildflowers, even if you've never seen this species, probably you'll It spreads by rhizomes as well as seeds, and is common in disturbed habitats. The silver leaves are attractive, but their blue flowers with prominent yellow stamens attract a lot of attention. More ambiguous names include "bull-nettle", "horsenettle" and the Spanish "trompillo". Boyd, J. W., D. S. Murray, and R. J. Tyrl. Silverleaf nightshade is an upright, usually prickly perennial in the Potato or Nightshade family. Silverleaf nightshade is a beautiful plant, but the beauty is a beast! Clay Loam, Medium Loam, Sandy Loam, Sandy. The plant contains enough enzymes to be used as a rennet, or digestive agent in milk (Boyd et al. Our roadside plant often is called the Silverleaf Nightshade or White Horsenettle. Solanum elaeagnifolium, the silverleaf nightshade or silver-leaved nightshade, is a common plant, and sometimes weed of western North America and also found in South America. However, their silvery leaves In some instances, an animal can be poisoned by eating 0.1 to 0.3 percent of its weight in silverleaf nightshade. This plant reproduces by seed and creeping root stalks. prickly. Silverleaf nightshade is classified as a toxic or poisonous plant; poisonous both to cattle and humans. The showy violet or bluish (sometimes white) flowers are followed by round, yell… cross-section below: The seeds are very like those of a tomato and they arise from an irregularly shaped yellow centers composed of the slender, arched anthers typical of the nightshades. While some plants produce more spines than others, and it has been reported that plants growing in humid climates produce few or no spines, for gardeners in the Southwest, this plant produces some spiny problems. The plant has poor forage value for livestock and wildlife and can be poisonous to livestock. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. STATE: Assorted authors. In cases of fruit poisoning, many small, tomatolike seeds may be found between the folds of the omasum and in the abomasum. This is interesting because members of the genus Solanum are rich in chemicals used as building blocks to synthesize birth control hormones. It normally grows 1 to 3 feet tall. _________________________________________________________________, This website utilizes a flat file text based database designed and written by, For permission to use photographs contact, All rights reserved. Distribution refers to the ecological region in Texas that a plant has been found. It's the Silverleaf Nightshade, also called White Horse-nettle, Prairie Berry It is related to deadly nightshade and is itself listed among  plants toxic to both humans and livestock. It is, however, a relative of tomatoes, tomatoes, and chiles. The species is also toxic to livestock. The flowers, appearing from April to August, have five petals united to form a star, ranging from blue to pale lavender or occasionally white; five yellow stamens and a pistil form a projecting center. Silverleaf nightshade is an upright, usually prickly perennial in the Potato or Nightshade family. Cottonwood tree suckers invading lawn from neighbor’s recently cut cottonwood tree, Silverleaf nightshade – the beauty is a beast. 1931  The Ethnobotany of the Isleta. One of the most commonly occurring, flowering roadside weeds here is the one shown above. tomato weed. Archeological occurrence. pithy center of a tomato. abundantly bore special kinds of whitish hairs known to be "stellate," or However, the ripe berries of this plant have been used by ancient Pima Indians as a substitute of rennin in making cheese. Solanum elaeagnifolium was described by A. J. Cavanilles. However, such anthers are the rule for plants known as the nightshades, and this is a structure in the fruit's center, the columella, very similar to the whitish, somewhat Its characteristic silver color is imparted by the tiny, starlike, densely matted hairs covering the entire plant. Solanum elaeagnifolium is a wild plant that possesses proteases in its fruit; those enzymes exhibit general proteolytic activities, which are useful in traditional asadero cheesemaking as a rennet substitute. Silverleaf Nightshade produces such a deep root system and is able to survive very The Kiowa used the seeds together with brain tissue to tan leather. The plant produces glossy yellow, orange, or red berries that last all winter and may turn brown as they dry.[6]. An intriguing application of the fruit is illustrated by its use by nursing mothers to extend the period of lactation. The leaves have wavy margins and are lance shaped to narrowly oblong. And since The Zuni chewed the tap root of the plant and placed the maceration into a tooth cavity to ease the pain (Stevenson 1915). The stems have prickles that are red to a tannish colour, producing young shoots that are a dull silver-gray colour. It contains toxic alkaloids that combine with sugars to produce glycoalkaloids which irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Even the fruit produce spines on their  sepals. It's [WSNWCB (2008)] Silverleaf nightshade (trompillo) is a plant that grows in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. In Australia, where it has been declared a from the June 9, 2013 Newsletter issued from the valley Although silverleaf nightshade has not been recovered from archeological sites in Texas, it is likely to be present in dry rockshelter deposits in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands because of its numerous medicinal uses. Silverleaf nightshade lowers crop yield through competition. 1939  The Economic Botany of the Kiowa Indians. penetrating the soil to sixteen feet (5m). In El Paso and throughout the Southwest there is a long history with nightshade in the making of cheese, specifically Asadero cheese. Keresan women made the fruits into necklaces. Quinta Edicion. 1984. It is a long-lived perennial plant with very deep, resilient roots. This makes them survivors, it also makes them weeds. Stem Texture: Prickly, Spiny, or Thorny, Leaf Shape Silverleaf nightshade was utilized as an eye treatment, most likely as a poultice (Elmore 1944). It is toxic to livestock and very hard to control, as root stocks less than 1 cm long can regenerate into plants. Leaves and stems are covered with downy hairs (trichomes) that lie against and hide the surface, giving a silvery or grayish appearance. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2:365-388. 1984). Medicine. Regeneration of, and toxicity of 2,4-D, to root fragments of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elpagnifolium Cav.). Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 47(1):48-50. The leaves of Silverleaf Nightshade alternate along the stem from one another and are egg-shaped, each leaf being about 6 inches long with either coarsely lobed or wavy edges. The Pima would powder the dried fruit (it dries on the plant) and place it in milk along with a piece of a rabbit or cow stomach in order to make cheese. worth taking a close look at the yellow, banana-like things in the blossom's center, as we Excerpts from Jim Conrad's and Trompillo. Its characteristic silver color is imparted by the tiny, starlike, densely matted hairs covering the entire plant.