reptans. Winter annual Any material used for herbicidal control of any plant may vary in efficacy. Annual bluegrass is a prolific seed producer but is well managed by most preemergence herbicides labeled for use. Rapid evolution of life history traits in populations of Poa annua L. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 3(314):205-224. Avoid overwatering and applying too much nitrogen fertilizer. Growth Habit: Leaves have linear margins (sides parallel) and distinctive boat-shaped tips. The ligule is membranous and rounded. It can be a difficult weed to control, as each plant produces several hundred seeds in a season that can lay dormant years before sprouting. There are reports of annual bluegrass resistance to a number of herbicide families including photosystem II inhibitors (Alabama, North Carolina, Oregon, Mississippi, and Virginia), ureas and amides (Oregon), thiocarbamates (Oregon), and dinitroanilines (North Carolina). — High Plains Integrated Pest Management Growth habit. Additional herbicide information can be found at Slightly pointed membranous ligule. This page was last modified 20:26, 28 March 2016 by. It is primarily a weed of lawns and turfgrass. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993. The leaves are smooth and abruptly contracted at the apices to give a characteristic 'boat-shaped tip'. It is primarily a weed of lawns and turfgrass. — Preferring moist, shady areas, it emerges from fall through spring, flowers, and then dies with the onset of warm weather. Annual bluegrass leaf blade tips are prow-shaped, and leaves tend to be crinkled at the midsection. Due to constantly changing labels, laws and regulations, the Extension Services can assume no liability for the suggested use of chemicals contained herein. Tutin TG, 1952. Annual bluegrass grows well in moist areas in full sun. Agronomic and Vegetable Crops Generally bunch type but can be stoloniferous Annual bluegrass is also weedy in alfalfa, grass seed, small grain, and potato. State rules and regulations and special pesticide use allowances may vary from state to state: contact your State Department of Agriculture for the rules, regulations and allowances applicable in your state and locality. For herbicide recommendations for specific grain rotations and weeds in Montana, please see the MSU Herbicide Chooser Tool. The name Poa annua is universally accepted for this common and widespread weed. The leaves are flat, slightly keeled with characteristic 'tramlines'. Poa is one of the most common weeds of highly maintained turfgrasses - sports fields and golf courses - giving golf course superintendents headaches when it invades their greens. Information and resources for the Ag Sciences community. It grows in a wide variety of soils, tolerates trampling, mowing, and frozen conditions, and is a frequent weed in areas heavily trafficked by livestock or humans. Hairless, soft, light green leaves are folded in the bud and lack auricles. This species has the potential to outcompete other plants and crops. Protection of Pollinators Seed is produced in late spring and early summer. 2020 The Pennsylvania State University. It is listed as a weed in 38 crops in more than 80 countries within and outside its native distribution range. Penn State Hotlines Bunching. Plants can flower at six weeks old and viable seed can be produced a few days after pollination, allowing plants to produce seed even when frequently mowed. P. annua is native to temperate areas of Eurasia. A further characteristic is that the leaves are often transversely wrinkled. School IPM, Compiled by Sandra Frost, University of Wyoming, Northwest Area Extension, Big Horn Basin Area Crop Systems Educator. Life cycle. Criticism of products or equipment not listed is neither implied nor intended. Pesticides must be applied legally complying with all label directions and precautions on the pesticide container and any supplemental labeling and rules of state and federal pesticide regulatory agencies. Annual bluegrass seeds begin to germinate in late summer or fall as soil temperatures drop below 70°F. Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a low growing cool-season grass in the family Poaceae. The ligule is membranous and rounded. Annual blue grass going to seed. Recovery Plan for Three Granite Outcrop Plant Species. Large membranous Origin of Poa annua L. Nature, 169:160. It can be found from the Arctic to the Antarctic regions in practically all terrestrial ecosystems. Mature plants grow in dense tufts, 3 to 12 inches tall with roots at the lower nodes. Pest Sampling and Management Tactics Organic Pesticides form a strategic partnership called N.C. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. It is in flower all year around except for severe winters. The seeds ripen and are deposited 8 months of the year. It is usually quite small, consisting of a low tuft of vegetation about 4" across and 1½" tall. The list of countries in which this species now occurs may not be complete, as P. annua has spread to almost all areas of the world where temperate and subtropical crops are grown, and to some relatively undisturbed habitats. disclaimer Weed Links Life Cycle and Cultural Charateristics Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. The typical plant has sprawling culms about 2½" long that are unbranched, except at the base. Annual bluegrass, in the family Poaceae, is a winter annual, clump-forming grass with a yellow-green color, prow-shaped leaf tips, and a distinctive whitish flower head. The spikelets are stalked, awnless, 1 to 2 cm (3/8 to 3/4 in.) Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Greenish white. Individual plants can produce over 350 seeds. Specific Chapters The inflorescence (flowering structure) is a terminal spreading panicle that varies between 1 and 4 inches in length. © Section 18 Exemptions Root Type: Apply before bluegrass reaches 10 inches in height, before planting or emergence of the crop. Poae, infects and suppresses the growth of annual bluegrass without affecting desirable turfgrass species. Consult herbicide labels for additional rate, application, and safety information. Poa annua L. Poaceae (Grass family) Life cycle. For a complete list of reports of herbicide resistance in annual bluegrass globally please see They … While the two types aren’t easy to distinguish from each other, the annual type is more upright in its growth habit and produces more seed than the lower-growing perennial type. Ligule. Conditions that favor growth. A bacterium is being considered for registration as a bioherbicide. Propagation: However, substantially larger plants are sometimes observed. Auricles: Privacy and Legal Statements Cool, moist conditions; compacted soil; close mowing; high levels of nitrogen. Please read the full In Alfalfa apply before annual blue grass reaches 3 inches in height. The plant grows rapidly from seed, flowering within 6 weeks, seeding and then dying. Annual bluegrass, in the family Poaceae, is a winter annual, clump-forming grass with a yellow-green color, prow-shaped leaf tips, and a distinctive whitish flower head. Folded Identification and Life Cycle. Seeds can remain dormant in the soil for several years before germinating. Life cycle: Ligule: Reproduction. The root system is fairly shallow and weak, requiring moisture from rain or frequent irrigation. Annual bluegrass is a misnomer because there are two plant types of annual bluegrass—a true annual, P. annua var. Field Records for Restricted Use P. annua is a cosmopolitan grass that is listed as one of the most aggressive weeds invading areas from sea level up to 1200 m in elevation. IPM for Woody Ornamentals IPM Bugwood. Preferring moist, shady areas, it emerges from fall through spring, flowers, and then dies with the onset of warm weather. and Marjolein Schat, Montana State University from the following sources:,,,,, Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook at The inflorescence (flowering structure) is a terminal spreading panicle … Leaves. Biological Control of Arthropod Pests Integrated Pest Management It is tetraploid ... 1990. Vernation: Seedlings mature in the fall and overwinter in a vegetative state. Seed Seedhead Color: Clump-forming winter or summer annual. Disease Management N.C. Annual bluegrass leaf blade tips are prow-shaped, and leaves tend to be crinkled at the midsection. IPM for Turfgrasses General Chapters — Poa annua Grass family (Poaceae) Description: This grass is a spring or fall annual that completes its life cycle within a short period of time (about 6 weeks). It tolerates the short mowing heights - forming seed heads that disrupt the uniformity and the ball roll of golf course greens. Can die out in summer. Annual bluegrass is a major weed in turf where it provides a weak sod that leads to poor footing in athletic fields and golf courses. Closeup of flower stalk. Accessibility W inter annual less than 1-ft. tall. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Inhibition of acetolacetate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS). It infects Poa plants through wounds in the stem and leaf tissues and multiplies in the vascular system, causing wilting and death of the plants. Insect Fact Sheets long when flowering, and loosely arranged on delicate paired or spreading branches., annual bluegrass, annual blue grass, walkgrass, Examples of herbicides that can be used to manage annual bluegrass,,,, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia. For more information and images please visit Please note: one or more of these active ingredients may exist in combination-type brand name products. Mature plants grow in dense tufts, 3 to 12 inches tall with roots at the lower nodes.